Título da Dissertação: Verificação dos diferentes perfis de ácidos graxos em frutos do mar enlatados utilizando análise de componentes principais (PCA).

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer 

Data da Defesa: 08/03/2016



Foods from sea origin like seafood, for instance, shrimp, crab, mussel, oyster, among others, as well as fish such as sardine, salmon, mackerel and tuna have their relevance in diet, for they contain a rich source of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in their composition. Among them are, with significant importance, the omega-3 fatty acids family (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6).
Within those series, the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA -18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA – 18:2n-6) are the most preeminent. Due to the fact that humans are unable to produce them, they become of greatest relevance and must be obtained through diet. Furthermore, they are precursors of the other n-3 and n-6 acids, respectively. ALA and LA are of fundamental relevance to human beings, because of the role they play in processes such as keeping the regular conditions of cell membranes, neural impulse transmission, brain functions, hemoglobin synthesis and cell division In the n-3 fatty acids series, the preeminent ones are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), for playing an important role in children’s brain development and the functional maintenance of adults’ brain. Thus, this present study has the objective of quantifying, total lipids and fatty acids, especially the ones from omega-3 series in mussels (Perna perna), Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), Salmon (Salmo salar), Mackerel (Scomber japonicas) and Tuna (Thunnus ssp.) traded within Brazil.
AIMS Thus, this present study has the objective of quantifying, total lipids and fatty acids, especially the ones from omega-3 series in mussels (Perna perna), Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), Salmon (Salmo Salar), Mackerel (Scomber japonicas) and Tuna (Thunnus spp.) traded within Brazil.
For the study, the acquisition of samples was carried out at three different supermarkets of Maringá, in the State of Paraná, Brazil, 5 of the samples being products canned in Brazil and 1 being of imported brand, and from those, 5 samples of fish and 1 being seafood. Nine samples were collected from each kind of product, and for each batch, three units were separated, totalizing 54 samples. The samples were, canned Sardine in its own sauce of edible oil (SO), canned Sardine in tomato sauce (ST), solid natural canned Tuna (AS), natural chopped Tuna with vegetable sauce (AP), natural canned Salmon filet (SN), canned Mussel with sunflower oil (MG), all produced in Brazil, and, canned Mackerel filet in Olive Oil (CA) made in Portugal. Samples were opened, the covering liquid was drained and only the solid parts of the samples were analyzed. For extraction of total lipids, the Bligh & Dyer (1959) method was utilized. Methylation of Triacylglycerol process followed the Hartman & Lago (1973) method. Separation of Methyl esters from fatty acids (FAMEs) will be separated in a Thermo CG-DIC, model trace ultra 3300 with fused silica capillary column CP – 7420 (Select FAME, 100 m of length, 0,25 mm of internal diameter and 0,25 μm of cyanopropyl).
In the performed study it was found 8,12g and 6,17g of lipids for canned sardine in soybean oil and canned sardine in tomato sauce, respectively. As for the canned mackerel in oil, a lipid percentage of 5,67g was found and the results for natural canned tuna and canned tuna in vegetable sauce presented very closely 1,36g and 0,91g, respectively. Canned mussel in sunflower oil presented 5,38g of lipids The lipid percentage found in natural canned salmon filet was 3,34g. The SO and ST samples presented higher concentration of ALA, 24,61 and 11,21 mg AG/g of lipids, respectively. For the EPA fatty acid, it was found higher concentrations in SN, 15,66 mg AG/g of lipids and 10,05 mg AG/g of lipids in ST. In relation to DHA, the highest concentrations were found in the AS samples, 197,69 mg AG/g of lipids and 176,09 mg AG/g of lipids in AP. Through picture 01, it’s possible to verify that 3 principal components explain the results, being the case that by PC1, sample 5 (mussel) is the one which presents the most positive influence in the results, followed by sample 01 (canned sardine in edible oil), while sample 03 (canned mackerel filet in olive oil) presented the most negative influence in the results. That is due to the fact that sample 05 presents a higher quantity of n-6, and sample 01, the highest quantity of AGPI. Sample 03, however, presents AGMI percentage as explicative variable.
Thus, it’s possible to verify that the samples contain different percentages of fatty acids and total lipid, being that the Principal Component Analysis is fundamental to explain the results. Considering the results, the canned products presented a significant quantity of ALA, EPA and DHA, being a great source of ingestion of those kinds of fatty acids.

KEY WORDS: Sardine, Mackerel, Salmon, Mussel, Tuna, Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Profile of Lipids.

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