Orientadora: Profa. Dra. Andresa Carla Feihrmann

Data da Defesa: 26/06/2020

Excess sodium in human food has been monitored for years by the medical and scientific community. Global data from 2014 show that 99.2% of the adult population worldwide estimated levels of sodium consumption above that recommended by the World Health Organization. This leads to several diseases, with a consequent considerable mortality rate. Much of the sodium intake comes from processed foods, mainly via sodium chloride. Among them, processed meat products are widely consumed and relatively cheap foods compared to traditional cuts of fresh meat. As a highlight, pork is the most popular meat in the world and in Brazil it is consumed mostly processed in the form of fresh sausages, sausages, hams and smoked products - foods that are mostly high in sodium. In this sense, there is a food concern about excessive sodium consumption, which has encouraged government organizations and the food industry to consider methods to reduce the use of this salt. However, it is a great challenge to reduce sodium, as in its varied applications it has essential functions in food. Thus, studies have been devoted to developing techniques to reduce the sodium content, minimizing the side effects of its absence in the characteristics of foods. The use of NaCl salt encapsulated in carnauba wax (extract from a typical tree in northeastern Brazil) is one of these processes, as it aims to create gradients of saline distribution, preserving the perception of salty taste by consumers.
The present study aimed to reduce the amount of salt added to fresh sausage without sensory impairment through the effect of flavor contrast, using sodium chloride encapsulated in carnauba wax, in addition to performing instrumental analysis and evaluating the physical-chemical, microbiological and products.
Material and methods This work started with the standardization of the granulometry of the NaCl salt in sieving with a magnetic stirrer, obtaining a diameter between 0.840 mm and 1.680 mm, in order to prepare the salt for encapsulation. After that, the salt was encapsulated with the melted carnauba wax in a rotary food mixer (Noort et al., 2012). For the production of fresh sausages, 80% of pork shank and 20% of ground pork fat were used. The meat was mixed with the other ingredients: garlic, parsley and NaCl salt in different amounts. Four treatments were developed, the Control formulation with 2.0% non-encapsulated salt and another 3 formulations using encapsulated salt in concentrations of 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, being , and respectively. Finally, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at freezing temperature (- 18ºC) for 90 days for further analysis. Then moisture, protein content and ash content of sausages were analyzed according to AOAC (2005). Lipid quantification was performed following the methodology of Bligh and Dyer (1959). The sodium content was determined by volume according to IAL (2008). The analyzes of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were carried out according to the methodology described by Raharjo et al. (1992), modified by Wang et al. (2002), following adaptation recommendations by Shahidi and Synomiecki (1985). The pH was determined by direct insertion of a calibrated pH meter MP125 (Mettler Toledo Inc., Ohio, USA), performing the analyzes on days 0, 30, 60 and 90, in triplicate. The aw determination was performed by direct reading on AquaLab® 4TEV (Decagon, USA). The color of the sausage samples was measured using a colorimeter (Konica Minolta, CR-400, Japan), previously calibrated on a white plate. Three parameters were measured: L * (brightness), a * (intensity of red) and b * (intensity of yellow) measured in three sample locations, collected from the cross section of the products. The texture profile analysis (TPA) was performed on roasted sausages, according to the methodology of Bourne (1978). Microbiological analyzes were performed on days 0 and 90 of storage. Coliform counts at 35 and 45 ° C, positive coagulase Staphylococcus and reducing sulfite clostridium were evaluated according to the methodology described by Downes and Ito (2001). The methodology used to research Salmonella spp. was according to (FDA-USA, 1998). The sensory analysis was performed with a hedonic scale of 9 points, evaluating the salinity content of the samples, following the methodology of Meilgaard et al. (1988). For data analysis, the entire experiment was repeated three times at three different times. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were used, using the Statistica® 7.0 software with a 5% significance level. Results At the 5% level of significance, there was a significant difference in moisture values between treatments. This probably occurred because salt has the capacity to retain water and hydrate myofibrillar proteins, making treatments with varying values of salt also have varying values of humidity. In addition, the sodium content decreased from the Control sample to the treatment, since sodium was intentionally reduced in the formulations and this decrease is also reflected in the decrease in the ash composition in all treatments. Proteins and lipids had no significant variation between their treatments, which shows that there was no change in the composition of the sausages subjected to sodium changes. In all treatments, the moisture, fat, protein and ash contents met the standards of the Brazilian legislation in force for this type of sausage (BRASIL, 2000). In the analysis of TBARS, there was no significant difference between the formulations (p> 0.05), showing that encapsulation and salt reduction do not interfere with lipid oxidation. On day 0 there was no difference in TBARS values between all treatments but after 60 days the values increased significantly showing average values of 0.175 mg MDA / kg, below the recommended maximum (2.0 mg MDA / kg). Regarding pH, there was a difference between treatments and storage period (p <0.05), with samples with 2% of encapsulated salt showing lower pH values. Initially, the formulations showed values between 6.2 to 6.5 and after90 days of storage the values were 6.6 to 6.7. As for water activity, the treatments Control, and remained without significant difference on day 90 compared to day 0. The sample showed a decrease of a_w on day 90 of storage. The luminosity parameters (L *) did not show any significant difference between treatments. Also, between the start of storage at -18 ° C (t = 0) and the end of storage (t = 90) there was no significant difference between any of the treatments. This occurred both in the results of the analysis of the external part of the sausage and of the internal part. The yellow intensity (b *) followed the same behavior, showing very close values when comparing the external part and the internal part of the sausage. Among the treatments, there was no significant difference for the measurements of the internal part. The only statistical difference found was from the outside, on day 60, between and treatments. As for the parameter a *, it was identified that from the outside of the sausage from day 0 to day 90 there was a decrease in the intensity of the red color for all treatments, except treatment , which maintained its initial color. In addition, when comparing the external and internal colorations, it is noticed that the internal one has a higher intensity of red. Analyzing the texture profile, it was noted that the sample had the lowest hardness values (33.47N), due to its lower salt concentration. Cohesiveness was not significantly affected (p> 0.05) by the reduction in sodium. Microbiological analyzes resulted in: coliforms at 35 ° C ranged from 20 to 43 NMP / g between treatments and storage days, coliform count at 45 ° C was <3 NMP / g in all treatments and all storage days and Coagulase positive Staphylococcus count and sulfite-reducing clostridia were <1x102 and <1x101, respectively. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the formulations. In the sensory analysis, only the treatment scores showed a significant difference from the others. However, this average is close to note 5, which corresponds to “adequate amount of salt”. Thus, the taster perceived the difference in the salty taste between the sample and the others, but considers the amount of salt used in it to be adequate. The treatment did not differ statistically from and Control.
In order to reduce the sodium content in fresh sausage, using NaCl encapsulated in carnauba wax, tests were carried out to confirm the efficiency of this process. The values obtained for centesimal composition, pH, texture and water activity are in accordance with the Brazilian Legislation (BRASIL, 2000). By instrumental color, it was found that the characteristics of external and internal coloring of the sausages were preserved between all treatments. Microbiological analysis showed that there was no significant difference in microbial growth between the Control, and treatments. The results of the present study prove that the use of NaCl salt encapsulated in fresh sausage was efficient in reducing 25% of the sodium content without sensory and technological damage.
Keywords: sodium chloride, encapsulation, meat products.

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