Orientador: Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira

Data da Defesa: 22/04/2013



Moringa oleifera Lam. belongs to the genus Moringaceae and the seeds of Moringa oleifera also contains high quality oil that can be used in foods and cosmectic, this oil was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). The drying process in some cases increased the yield.
The aim of this study were to characterize the physical and chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seeds from different regions of Brazil and study the behavior of the seed during drying and oil extraction process and implications of the drying process in oil yield quality.
Physical characterization of Moringa seeds analysed the length, width, sphericity, true density and apparent, porosity and angle of repose and chemical analyzes carried out were: moisture, ash, fat, protein, mineral profile and fatty acid profile of seeds from Northeast (Segipe and Bahia), Midwest (Mato Grosso do Sul) and South (Paraná) of Brazil.
In Moringa seeds from Sergipe drying tests were perfomed at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C in order to obtain the drying curve and drying rate curve of seed at each temperature and the application of ten different mathematical models. Then the study observed the influence of two factors in the yiels of the oil extraction (time and temperature of drying) being evaluated on the dry seed at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C and the drying times of one hour, two hours and eight hours, time chosen according to the data of the drying curve and the factor of more influence in oil extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds was the temperature. After that chosen fixed the drying time of 2 hours and variaded the temperature of drying, were evaluated the oil extraction with conventional methods as solvent extraction: extraction with hexane and extraction with chloroform and methanol using the methodology described by Bligh and Dyer (1959) and also evaluated the mechanical extraction. The oils were subjected to physicochemical analysis to assess the stability namely: free fatty value, saponification value, iodine value, density, moisture and fatty acid profile.
The seeds showed significant differences between some physical and chemical analysis, in addition to having high protein and lipids. The seed of Sergipe in (northeast) region of the country showed the highest level of oleic acid. The behavior of seeds of Moringa oleifera was expected for organic solids and according to the results, Henderson and Pabis Modificaded model is superior to the others for explaining drying behaviour of Moringa oleifera seeds. The drying process improved the yield of oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa in the solvent extraction of oil studied. The highest yield was obtained from seeds dried at 60°C for 2 hours, using the solvente hexane (41%). The physical and chemical characteristics of the oil were not changed by the drying process. The seeds showed low values of free fatty value. The values of iodine, saponification and density were as aspected. Regarding the profile of fatty acids all samples showed a highest levels of oleic acid, possuindo características semelhantes ao azeite de oliva em relação a composição em ácidos graxos e índice de acidez.
The seeds from differents region of Brazil showed significant difference in physical and chemical characteristics and it is important to know this characteristics in industrialization of seeds. The highest oleic acid was obtained from the seed origins in the state of Sergipe. The drying process can become a control point of industrialization, besides increasing the yield of oil extracted from the seed. The oil obtained from mechanical process was indicated to used as a possible substitute of olive oil, and the oil from solvente extraction was indicated to used after studys of toxic level and refining process. Therefore, Moringa seed can be a potential source of this acid with application in food industry.
Key Words: Moringa oleifera, oil, drying.

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