Orientadora: Profª Drª Angélica M. S. Vieira

Data da Defesa: 23/03/2015



INTRODUCTION: In meat products and their derivatives, the processes of lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals caused by oxidation in fats lid to chemical deterioration. The accumulation of compounds provided of this process can result in the development of rancid flavors and color changes. Antioxidant compounds are molecules that prevent the uncontrolled formation of these free radical species and therefore have the ability to retard lipid oxidation process thereby increasing the durability of products. The industries generally use is the addition of synthetic antioxidants to ensure greater durability in their products, but the use of synthetic antioxidants bring harm for the health of consumers, as an alternative to avoid these losses caused by addition of these chemical preservatives is use natural compounds possessing antioxidant, examples thereof are phenols and generally flavonoids. Extracts from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam were reported to exhibit antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo, due to the abundance of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which makes a plant with a high value for this purpose.
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant compounds in the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam with hydroethanolic solvent extract application in embedded meat, like bologna, with further evaluation of the final product in relation to its effectiveness as a natural antioxidant.
MATERIAL AND METHODS Using the program Design Expert 7.1. delineated and optimized up a sheet of antioxidants extraction process of Moringa oleifera Lam which were collected in the experimental farm of the State University of Maringa, dehydrated at a controlled temperature of 30 ° C and exposed to an extraction at room temperature with stirring continuous in periods of time ranging from 0-24 hours with extraction solutions ranging their concentrations from 0-100% ethanol in its composition. The extracts were evaluated for the amount of total phenolic compounds using the methodology described by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and EC50 by DPPH radical scavenging capacity, using the Brand-Williams et al. (1995) methodology. The extract with more antioxidant power was determined by Desing Expert 7.1 program through the optimization surface. The extract containing the best antioxidant potential was used in bologna formulations to replace the use of chemical preservative Sodium erythorbate. Specifically, the source of preservative used was 0.25% and 0.00% sodium erythorbate extract (CONT); 0.25% extract and 0.00% sodium erythorbate (M0,25), 0.50% and 0.00% extract erythorbate (M0,50) and 1.00% extract and 0.00 % erythorbate (M1,00). The other ingredients used in the manufacture of bologna was added as a proportion of the total amount of the mixture in the same amount in all treatments. The pellet was embedded in bologna casings of 35 mm caliber plastic polyamide in 100g portions. The bologna were then, baked in an oven with continuous flow of air at a temperature of sequence/time 55 °C/30 min, 65 °C/30 min, 75 °C/30 min, and 85 °C/30 min, such that the center of each portion reached 73 ° C. The bologna were evaluated in relation of lipid oxidation by the TBARS method according to Ohkawa et al (1979), color using a Minolta colorimeter held in colorimeter CR-300 (Konica Minolta, Japan) previously calibrated in a
white surface in accordance to predetermined standards and pHaccording to the methodology AOAC (2003) for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after production. Regarding the microbiological testing using spread plate methodology tests were done at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days. The proximate analysis using methods described by AOAC (2003) the texture was carried in a texturometer Stable Micro System, TA.XT/Plus/50, Godalming, UK) with specific parameters and probes, according to express itself in the manual method equipment fatty acids according to the method of Hartman and Lake (1973), sensory analysis according to the methodology described by HOUGH, G., et al, 2001 with acceptance to the product in relation to the color, flavor, odor and texture, were held on the seventh day. The Oxitest by oxidation analysis (Velp Scientifica, Usmate, Milan, Italy), equipped with two separate oxidation chambers with operating conditions described in the equipment manufacturer's manual and water activity by a water activity meter type AW-500 -TH Sprint, Novasina, according to the procedure described in its manual (Novasina, 2004) were performed on Day 0.
Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test, focusing on significant differences among them. Correlations between datas were calculated by SISVAR software statistical program, which was employed with significance between the differences of 5% (p <0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: To the extract was found optmized a quantity of phenolic compounds 1333.84 mgGAE / L and the lowest concentration capable of reducing by 50% the amount of DPPH radicals is 12.43 mgGAE / L. These values were found by Desing Expert program 7.1. and validated through Phenolic compounds analysis and DPPH radical sequestration through the methods previously mentioned. For analyzes in the formulations of bologna there were no significant differences in the proximate analysis, moisture, water and color of activity showing that the addition of the extract was not influential in these parameter settings. For pH assay, TBARs and microbiological assay, the extract was efficient in maintaining their values little changed from the passage of time, and the formulations showed no significant difference (p <0.05) compared to quantities added to the different formulations. For the oxidation analysis by Oxitest all samples differed among formulations and the sample had a lower concentration of extracts was shown to be more efficient (M0,25). The addition of the extracts in different proportions in the formulations showed significant interference in the texture of mortadella, and the larger the addition of extract, low texture was presented. This fact can be explained by the removal of sodium erythorbate. For sensory analyze the aroma and flavor parameters the addition of the statement could not be perceived by the judges who did not differentiate the notes given the different formulations, color parameters for all samples were considered different being M1,00 formulation obtained higher note, in the category texture samples also had different notes where M0,25 sample had higher average and overall appearance just M0,50 formulation different from the other.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the process of extraction of antioxidants from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam using the extracting solution hydroethanol in room temperature is a good source of phenolic compounds, and these compounds scavenging activity present significant free radical and thus a power the presence of these reducing and therefore have the ability to stabilize products of oxidative action. The application of this extract in meat sausages, bologna type, replacing chemical preservatives
was efficient. Furthermore, the addition of the extracts showed no significant effect on some of the reviews in the control parameters. The microbiological quality of samples formulations of mortadella were kept in the course of the analysis of shelf life. These results indicate that the extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam can be used as a natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation of lipids in meat sausages.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera Lam; Mortadella; Antioxidant Extraction

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