Título da Dissertação: Caracterização de cervejas artesanais ALE e LAGER, em dois modelos de brassagem

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Antonio Roberto Giriboni Monteiro

Data da Defesa: 16/02/2018




Beer is a fermented product, derived from the mashing of malted cereals, water and hops. In recent years, we have seen an exponential growth on the number of breweries. In the United States, in 1985, there were 37 breweries registered, and 4000 breweries in 2015. As consequence of this growth of breweries, a new market of craft beer emerges. These beers differ from the commercial ones by not using additives, being made with pure malt and not being filtered.

It is possible to make small-scale artisanal beers that meet the physicochemical quality standards, for which a good raw material must always be used. Water is the component in highest proportion present in beer, although it is easy to standardize today, its parameters are of great importance for the production and differentiation of beer styles.

There are few studies on the scales of production of craft beers, however, it is estimated that it has been produced in small quantities, up to twenty liters, because of the easiness of replacing or reusing the equipment. There are several brewing methods and various types of equipment can be used, all these methods have in common the expectation that the enzymes convert the starch into smaller and fermentable sugars.

Enzymes are mainly affected by factors such as temperature, pH and the time of each temperature ramp (called mash), which influences the final amount of sugars present in the wort. Thus, the conditions of the apparatus and the ramp time directly influence the resulting beer type. Even using the same amounts of raw material, a different beer can be obtained.


Compare beers produced at reduced scales to verify the possibility of using nano-scales in product tests. The chosen styles, according to the definitions of the Beer Judge Certification Program – BJCP.


The experiments were performed at the nano-brewery of the Department of Food Engineering, Block 115, Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM. To produce the beers, two equipment’s were built in the 1:10 scale ratio, one having 2 liters of capacity and the other 20 liters. Four beers were produced, in triplicate: two Ale, one for each equipment, and two Lager, one for each equipment.

The 20-liter equipment was built in 304 stainless steel, with a 1500 W resistance for mashing and boiling, using gravity to transfer the wort to the filtration vat. The 2-liter unit was designed to have sufficient volume for all analyzes, including sensory analysis. It was built using a glass beaker with a capacity of 2 liters.

Aimimg at the determination of the water quality standards, a 5-liter sample was analyzed by the Laboratory of Water Quality and Pollution Control (Environmental Sanitation), at the UEM. The saccharide quantity analyzes were performed in HPLC, equipped with a Chromatographic Workstation, containing: Four-way reciprocating piston pump, manual injector with 10μL sample, chromatographic column and spectrophotometric detector with photodiode array.

In order to determine if the two devices will produce the same beer at a statistical significance level of 5%, the proposed test was the triangular one, where two samples were taken from the same bottle produced in the first equipment, being mixed in random patterns and numbers with a sample produced in the second equipment.


The water, used for mashing and washing the post-boil grains, had all the organoleptic and physical characteristics within the potability standard. Other important patterns for the brewing are the water chemical profile. Parameters such as the amount of fluorides and chlorides are into the range of the potability is a factor that influences the growth of yeasts, and the fermentation of beers.

Red Ales beers used a larger amount of malt to reach a desired volume of post-fermentation alcohol, since roasted malts, because of Maillard reactions, are not degraded to fermentable sugars by enzymes. All parameters analyzed did not differ significantly at the 5% level.

The American Premium Lagers presented no significant difference at the 5% level, for any physical-chemical parameter analyzed. We can say that the beers made in the two equipments are statistically equal at the physical-chemical level.

A reading for sugar, was made in HPLC, for each beer, thus, we created 3 signs for each treatment, where Red Ale beers produced in the 20 liters equipment, generated data in triplicate. Beers produced in the 2 liter equipament, we generated 3 signals too retention times of the standards for raminose, xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose respectively. We can observe that the measured spectrum, even using the same concentration, is different for each standard. In order to calculate the amount of sugar, it is necessary to verify that the measured signals are the same as the injected standards.

The areas for signal quantification, the comparison of the saccharide signals of the beers in the 20 liters apparatus were calculated in comparison to the areas of the signals generated by the saccharides of the beers made in the 2 liters equipment, has no significant difference at the 5%.

Thus, the profiles of saccharides generated in the two types of brewing, even though they can not be said to be saccharides, are statistically similar, and it can be said that using these two equipments, the beers produced have statistically the same profiles of post-fermentation saccharides.

To compare whether Ale brews produced in the 20 liters equipment resemble sensory levels with Ale brews produced in the 2 liter equipment, a triangular test was performed. The same test was repeated with Lagers beers. None of the tests reached the minimum number of hits for 90 tasters, which would be 38 hits. Thus we can say that at the sensory level the beers do not differ at the level of 5%.


The study showed the possibility of reducing the scale of 20 liters appliances to 2 liters appliances, thus reducing the cost of manufacturing and facilitating the production of beers, since at physical-chemical levels, saccharide profiles and sensorially we have the same beers both in Ale fermentation and in Lager fermentation.

Keywords: Scale up, fermented, HPLC, sensory and physical-chemical analysis.

 Artigos Publicados Vinculados a Dissertação: