Título da Dissertação: Redução no teor de cloreto de sódio em biscoito cream cracker por meio de uma cobertura comestível.

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Antonio Roberto Giriboni Monteiro

Data da Defesa: 16/02/2018



Excess sodium in foods has been identified as one of the factors of the increase in non-communicable chronic diseases, being one of the most important is the high blood pressure. Sodium is used in a wide range of processed foods, including the cream crackers, which is composed mainly of carbohydrates and lipids, as well as high sodium content. Because of this, this cracker is among the priority foods for monitoring the reduction in sodium content, as the report of monitoring of sodium reduction plan, from the Ministry of health.
Considering the great concern on the part of health authorities, as well as the challenge by the industry in the technological and sensory point of view, since it results not only in reducing the salty taste and acceptability, but it can also impact on the roles that this ingredient plays in the production and conservation of many foods, this study is justified in order to contribute to the reduction in the sodium content in type cream cracker which presents a high intake by the general population.
This work aims to contribute to the reduction of sodium in type cream crackers using a method of edible coating that provides a homogeneous distribution of salt, so it is not changed the perception of salty taste, thus keeping the taste and texture of the product, in other words, without affecting the sensory and technological characteristics of the product.
This research aimed to develop two formulations of cream cracker, both with 40% reduction of salt, being a reduction in mass and another through coverage, in the end compared with the standard formulation as the perception of salt content by middle of the sensory analysis and also through physical and chemical analyses.
The ingredients used for the formulations were purchased in supermarkets in the city of Maringá-PR. The preparation of the products was carried out in the laboratory of cereals in food engineering in the State University of Maringá (UEM).
Three cream crackers formulations were prepared and the Formulation 1 (F1) the default, Formulation 2 (F2) with 40% reduction of salt in the dough, and Formulation
3 (F3) with 40% reduction of salt, but there was no addition of sodium in the dough, which was added later through the salt coating.
The crackers were evaluated regarding sodium content by the method (J AOAC, 1966), moisture through the methodology (AOAC, 2005), pH was rated by electrometric process with digital potentiometer (Hanna, model HI 221), water activity was held using the portable meter apparatus model Aw 43, specific volume was determined by the method of displacement of millet seed in five repetitions (PIZZINATO, et al., 1993), color was held in ten repetitions, using the optional Chroma Get CR400 (Konica Minolta, Japan), the hardness was measured by method (GAINES, 1991).
Sensory analysis was performed a range of unstructured 7 cm, which purpose is to evaluate the intensity of salt in each sample. The tasters rated the samples in ascending order of salty flavor, being of less salty to the saltiest (MATHEW & CESTARI, 2015).
The data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), in which it was applied to the Tukey test, to compare the averages, the 5% level of significance as Statistical Assistance software-version 7.7 Assistat PT. Current. 01/03/2017.
The formulations did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) regarding moisture and hardness. The three formulations presented moisture content in accordance with resolution No. 12 of 1978 by ANVISA (BRAZIL, 1978) where the maximum allowable percentage is 14%. Therefore, the decrease in sodium chloride not interfered in the texture of the crackers.
The formulations presented pH values ranging from 6.95 to 7.25 showing significant differences between formulations. Louise, 2014 found similar to pH values between 6.97 and 7.36.
As to water activity (Aw), F1 (0, 455a ± 0.001) showed significant difference between the F2 (0, 451b ± 0.001) and F3 (0, 451b ± 0.001). The formulations were evaluated within the appropriate values according to Franco and Langraf (2008), the value of 0.60 is considered a limiting water activity value to the multiplication of any micro-organism. For pH and Aa there are not defined limits in Brazilian law, being therefore only process control parameters used by the industry to assist in quality control and standard maintenance of the crackers. As for the results of specific volume there were no differences in the formulations. Regarding color parameters, the crackers differed statistically. The F2 and F3 crackers with salt reduction in their formulations presented a higher luminosity L* value, resulting in a lighter product. For the chrome yellow b* there were no significant differences between F1 and F3, all the formulations showed lower propensity to tint the * redish. The results of salt content were statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) between the samples 37.69% F2 and F3 42.47%, which was expected due to the use of different methodologies to reduce sodium in the formulations. Regarding sensory analysis it was conducted with 110 untrained tasters due to the reduction in F2 and F3, relative to F1. The results obtained in sensory analysis were the following: F1 (3, 63a ± 0.69) and F3 (3, 73a ± 0.97) showed no statistical difference (p < 0.05), already in F2 (1, 84b ± 1.07) showed difference regarding the other being that the who had reduced 37.69% salt in the product as a whole.
The results of this research confirmed inhomogeneous distribution of salt can be used to increase the perception of a product, allowing it to have sodium reduction without loss of its taste. Thus, the coating method for salt coverage can be considered a good strategy for the reduction of salt in cream cracker.
Key-words: Salt, food, perception.

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