Título da Dissertação: Ocorrência, estimativa da exposição e avaliação de risco na população infantil para aflatoxina M1 em produtos lácteos no Brasil

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Miguel Machinski Junior

Data da Defesa:26/06/2020

INTRODUCTION. Milk is essential in human nourishment, especially when it comes to children, since it meets nutritional needs in all age groups with an excellent amount of macro and micronutrients. Besides, it is an important source of proteins of high biological value, for it provides essential amino acids. Yet, the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in bovine milk and its products is a public health concern, since it is a carcinogenic substance consumed daily by children who have milk as part of their diet.
AIMS. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of AFM1 in UHT bovine milk, powdered milk and infant formula for the child population of a Child Education Center in Maringá – Brazil, as estimate the daily AFM1 exposure within this population and evaluate the eventual risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated which said exposure.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Determination of AFM1, in 60 samples, collected at a Child Education Center and the local market in Maringa – PR, Brazil, was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). Evaluation of the mycotoxin exposure was carried out through the determination of the estimated daily intake (EDI), whereas risk characterization was evaluated with the calculation of the risk of HCC and the margin of exposure (MOE). The data on dairy products consumption were obtained with a questionnaire of food frequency for children (QFFC), which was answered by parents or legal guardians.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The samples were collected between Autumn and Winter in Brazil (April to July, 2019). AFM1 was detected in 28.33% of the samples at levels ranging from 150 to 1020 ng/kg, and all the positive samples exceeded the limits stablished by the European Community. An EDI for AFM1 varied according to the age group of the population studied (0-5 years) from 0,8285-2,5228, 0-2,1125 and 0,0287-0,8334 ng/kg b.w./day in UHT milk, powdered milk and infant formula, repectively. The number of HCC cases associated with AFM1 exposure (0.0150 to 0.0457) due to the consumption of dairy products was higher than the recommended limit of 0.01 cancer case /100,000 individuals in all age groups evaluated. MOE values for AFM1 were 694.1 to 228.2, considerably below the security margin of 10,000.
CONCLUSIONS. These results point to a potential risk to the health of Brazilian child population exposed to AFM1 in dairy products. Therefore, it is necessary to stablish risk management- related measures.
Key words: Aflatoxin M1, Occurrence, Risk assessment, Children, Food safety

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